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Large-scale livestock manure is actually a huge resource pool
Carry out demonstration actions of agricultural circular economy, promote the typical model of agricultural circular economy, promote the development of circular combination of agricultural one, two, and three industries, promote the circular link of agricultural production and living systems, and build a resource recycling system covering agricultural systems. Taking demonstration as the starting point, cultivating leading enterprises in agricultural circular economy, promoting the utilization of modern agricultural circular economy resources, the clean production process, the recycling of industrial links, and the development of waste treatment resources.
There are still many practical difficulties in fully realizing the energyization and utilization of livestock and poultry manure. “The 'four difficulties' is a roadblock for the disposal and recycling of livestock and poultry farming.” Han Changfu said frankly.
Just like the front and back of a piece of paper, China's animal husbandry output value reached 2.98 trillion yuan, accounting for 27.8% of the total agricultural output value. The rapid development of animal husbandry has met the growing demand for animal products in the whole society. The problem of aquaculture waste and livestock manure has become increasingly prominent.
The 14th meeting of the Central Financial and Economic Leading Group pointed out that accelerating the treatment and recycling of livestock and poultry wastes, affecting the production and living environment of more than 600 million rural residents, and the rural energy revolution, can the relationship be improved continuously and the agricultural landscape can be improved. Source pollution is a good thing for the benefit of the country and the people.
How big is the impact of livestock and poultry waste? How hard is it to handle? What should I do in the future? Our reporter interviewed the Minister of Agriculture Han Changfu exclusively.
The annual production of livestock and poultry in the country is about 3.8 billion tons.
At present, the annual production of livestock and poultry manure in the country is about 3.8 billion tons. In 2010, the “National First Pollution Source Survey Bulletin” showed that the chemical oxygen demand emitted by livestock and poultry farming reached 12.6822 million tons, accounting for 96% of the total agricultural source emissions; total nitrogen and total phosphorus emissions were 1.024 million tons and 16.04 million tons, accounting for 38% and 56% of the total agricultural discharge, respectively. Livestock and poultry manure has become a major source of agricultural non-point source pollution.
Han Changfu said that large-scale livestock and poultry manure is a huge resource pool. However, if it is not handled well, it will definitely have an adverse impact on the environment and residents' lives.
Taking the Dongting Lake area as an example, the water environment in this area is sensitive, and the pressure of livestock and poultry manure treatment is high. In some places, the aquaculture wastewater is not only discharged into surface water, but also infiltrated into shallow groundwater, resulting in excessive ammonia nitrogen in the groundwater in some areas of the lake area. And the safety of residents drinking water has a certain impact. Individual large-scale farms are arbitrarily discharged to the surrounding environment due to improper treatment of manure, and sewage and odors affect the production and life of the surrounding people.
The reporter learned that there are three main modes of livestock manure treatment and resource utilization, namely energy utilization, fertilizer utilization and industrialization. Energy utilization and fertilizer utilization are the main directions.
In recent years, the work of manure treatment and resource utilization of livestock and poultry has achieved initial results, and the comprehensive utilization rate has increased from 50% in 2012 to nearly 60% in 2015. In 2015, the chemical oxygen demand and ammonia nitrogen emissions of livestock and poultry farming decreased by 1.32 million tons and 100,000 tons respectively compared with 2010, with a decrease of 11.5% and 15.4%, exceeding the “12th Five-Year” emission reduction target.
In addition, under the support of the policy and the market, the facilities of the manure treatment facilities have been continuously improved, the governance mechanism has been gradually improved, and the utilization level of livestock and poultry manure resources has been continuously improved, which has made positive contributions to improving and improving the production and living environment of urban and rural residents. At the end of 2015, household biogas reached 41.933 million households, benefiting more than 200 million people; 110,000 biogas projects with livestock and poultry manure as the main raw materials, with an annual output of more than 2 billion cubic meters of biogas.
It is difficult to return to the field, difficult to use, difficult to regulate, and difficult to promote
In recent years, China's livestock and poultry farming waste treatment and resource utilization have achieved some results, but there are still many practical difficulties in fully realizing the energy and fertilizer utilization of livestock and poultry manure. “The 'four difficulties' is a roadblock for the disposal and recycling of livestock and poultry farming.” Han Changfu said frankly.
The first difficulty is that the combination of cultivation and cultivation is not tight, and it is difficult to return livestock and poultry manure.
The problem of agricultural production of heavy chemical fertilizers and light organic fertilizers is prominent, and the basic soil strength of cultivated land is declining. Han Changfu said that one situation is that the breeding body is separated and there is nowhere to "return". With the accelerated development of large-scale aquaculture, the cultivation and planting are separated into two main bodies. The pigs are not planted, and the farms are not pigs, which objectively isolates the passage of the feces. In another case, the standard system is not perfect and will not “return”. The testing standards and production technical specifications of manure and biogas are not perfect, and the technology of livestock and poultry farming waste disposal and returning to the field needs to be further standardized and popularized.
The second difficulty is that energy products are not competitive and the market is difficult to use.
The poor sales of terminal products and the lack of competitiveness are the most important factors affecting the energy utilization of livestock and poultry manure. For example, Han Changfu said that in the commercial operation of biogas projects, biogas projects are mainly distributed in the vast rural areas. The investment in biogas pipeline network is large, the safety risks are high, and the breeding enterprises are unwilling to develop. Therefore, the gas and electricity products of most small and medium-sized biogas projects are still mainly used by farms and neighboring farmers.
The third difficulty is to support the lack of policies and guide the adjustment.
Compared with some developed countries, China has not yet formed a green development-oriented agricultural subsidy policy, and there are no support measures for the production and use of bio-natural gas, organic fertilizer and other products. For example, biogas power generation, although there are subsidies for biomass energy power generation benchmarking, but some regional policies are not in place. At the same time, the gas and electricity costs generated by the utilization of manure pollution are relatively high, and they are less competitive than natural gas and large power grids.
In addition, technical support is not in place, and promotion is also one of the "four difficulties."
Compared with countries with advanced biogas technology, the capacity and automation level of large-scale biogas projects in China need to be improved, and standards and specifications for new technologies and new materials need to be established. Although the biogas service system has basically achieved full coverage, it has not established an effective service mechanism and operation mode, and the problems of unstable service personnel and low technical level have made the existing biogas service system difficult to maintain.
Strive to achieve 60% of the return of livestock and poultry manure at the end of the 13th Five-Year Plan
The 14th meeting of the Central Financial and Economic Leading Group proposed to adhere to the policy of government support, enterprise main body, and market-oriented operation. The main treatment direction of biogas and bio-natural gas is to use it locally for rural energy and agricultural organic fertilizer. In the direction of the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan”, we will basically solve the problem of manure treatment and resource utilization in large-scale livestock and poultry farms.
In this regard, Han Changfu said that it is necessary to cultivate new subjects, new formats, new industries, guide social capital to participate in the development of organic fertilizers, new energy and other industries, promote the cleanliness of the breeding process, the recycling of manure treatment, the ecological utilization of products, and the establishment of fertilizers. Biogas supplemented resource utilization system to improve the utilization rate of livestock and poultry breeding waste resources, and to construct a new pattern of livestock and poultry manure resource utilization using industrial development, market-oriented operation, scientific management and socialized services. Specifically, it includes the following four aspects:
First, promote the development of standardized scale farming of livestock and poultry. Implement the “National Pig Production Development Plan (2016-2020)” and “Guiding Opinions on Promoting the Adjustment and Optimization of Pig Breeding Distribution in the Southern Water Network Area” to further promote standardized scale farming, support scale farms to improve infrastructure conditions, and construct manure Collect, store, process and utilize facilities to achieve emission reduction and environmental protection in aquaculture.
Secondly, improve the market mechanism for the utilization of manure resources. Increase the utilization of livestock and poultry manure resources, support the PPP model of government-enterprise cooperation, encourage the support of third-party governance, mobilize the enthusiasm of social capital, and form the whole industry chain for the collection, storage, transportation, treatment and comprehensive utilization of livestock and poultry manure. We will implement the agricultural waste resource utilization project focusing on the comprehensive treatment of manure, and support the construction of livestock and poultry manure treatment facilities in accordance with the methods of specialized production and market operation.
Once again, the implementation of fruit and vegetable tea organic fertilizer to replace fertilizer operations. Start the fruit and vegetable tea organic fertilizer instead of chemical fertilizer action, mainly based on citrus apples, facility vegetables and brand teas, establish resource utilization models such as fruit (vegetables, tea), and promote the rational use of organic fertilizer resources such as livestock and poultry manure. At the end of the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan”, the rate of nutrient return to livestock and poultry was 60%, an increase of 10 percentage points.
Finally, promote the appropriate mode of comprehensive utilization of livestock and poultry manure. Focusing on the reduction, generation, harmless treatment and resource utilization of livestock and poultry breeding wastes, 200 animal husbandry green development demonstration counties were established during the 13th Five-Year Plan period. We will increase the development and popularization of technologies and equipment for mixing raw material fermentation, biogas purification and canning, manure and fertilizer application, and comprehensively improve the technical level of resource utilization of livestock and poultry farming waste.
In 2019, animal husbandry ushered in fusion